Jeremiah 31:31-34 31 "Behold, the days are coming, says the LORD, when I will make a new covenant with the house of Israel and with the house of Judah-- 32 not according to the covenant that I made with their fathers in the day that I took them by the hand to lead them out of the land of Egypt, My covenant which they broke, though I was a husband to them, says the LORD. 33 But this is the covenant that I will make with the house of Israel after those days, says the LORD: I will put My law in their minds, and write it on their hearts; and I will be their God, and they shall be My people. 34 No more shall every man teach his neighbor, and every man his brother, saying, 'Know the LORD,' for they all shall know Me, from the least of them to the greatest of them, says the LORD. For I will forgive their iniquity, and their sin I will remember no more."

The Hebrew word “brit” means Covenant. The Hebrew "chadasha" (ka-dash) can mean either new OR to renew. The use of the word is dependent upon the context of the subject.

The Strongs has separated the translated “new” from the translated “renew” by adding vowel points. The adding of vowel points was done after the fact based on how they wanted to translate the word; typically within the context of the passage. The original Hebrew language and writings did not include these vowel points and translations were dependent upon the context of the word usage.

Let's look at chadasha in a few Scripture passages, to show the different uses according to context.

Let’s start with some examples of “new”:

Exodus 1:8 8 Now there arose a chadasha (new) king over Egypt, who did not know Joseph.

Deuteronomy 24:5 5 "When a man has taken a chadasha (new) wife,

Judges 16:12 12 Therefore Delilah took chadasha (new) ropes and bound him with them,

Job 32:19 19 Indeed my belly is like wine that has no vent; It is ready to burst like chadasha (new) wineskins.

Now let’s take a look at some examples for “renew”:

"Turn us unto you, O YHWH, and we will be turned; chadasha (renew) our days as of old"
(Lam 5:21)

"Who satisfies your mouth with good things; so that your youth is chadasha (renewed) like the eagles"
(Psalm 103:4)

"Create in me a clean heart, O Elohim; and chadasha (renew) a right spirit within me"
(Psalm 51:10)

"You chadasha (renew) your witnesses against me, and increase your indignation upon me: changes and war are against me"
(Job 10:17)

We can see that the meaning of chadasha is dependent upon the context of passages. What about in the context of the Covenant?

In order to understand the context of the Covenant, one must look at the Bible as a whole: it's dependent upon the context of the entire Bible. We looked at this in the last video, but we are going to review it again on the basis of the subject of this section.

Romans 3:21-22 
21 But now the righteousness of God apart from the law is revealed, being witnessed by the Law and the Prophets, 22 even the righteousness of God, through faith in Messiah Yeshua, to all and on all who believe. For there is no difference;

The subject of Romans 3:21-22 is the righteousness of God. We know righteousness to be given for the obedience of the things of God (Romans 1:16). Paul is saying here, apart from the Law. We know the Law of God, or Ten Commandments, to be the definition of sin and a Law we are to obey; but apart from this law, there is still righteousness which is revealed. In other words, the Righteousness of God, which is to dwell in our lives, is revealed, through us, by more than obedience to the Ten Commandments: there's more to do than keep His Laws. This passage states that it is even revealed through the faith in Messiah Yeshua, as we understand from John 6:28-29. This is obvious to us, for believing in Messiah Yeshua is the first obedient act we must obtain. We are also seeing that the Righteousness of God is witnessed by the Law and the Prophets. This may confuse some people because the passage first says apart from the Law then witnessed by the Law.

There are several Laws and this causes confusion among religion. There is the Law of God: it’s the Moral Law in the Old Testament written in stone and placed in the Ark; in the New Testament it is written on our hearts. There is the law of Moses, these are known as the works of the law, or simply works, which was written on parchment and placed beside the Ark. There are the Statutes of God, which were given for our spiritual and physical health. There is the Mosaic Law, which encompasses all the Laws into one; and this sometimes included the Talmud Law, which is a religious law established by the religion of the Jews. This is the law that Messiah Yeshua came against the pharisees for so many times. There is one other Law in the Bible, this is called the Torah today.

This is the reason I like to reference the Christian Aramaic Bible as a reference to what is being talked about. Hebrew is merely a different dialect off of Aramaic; and Aramaic is what Y’shua and the disciples spoke. Like we saw earlier, in Jeremiah 31:33, religion believes the “Law”, that Scripture is talking about, is the Ten Commandments. Of course, if we lived our lives as if that were true, we would do much better than we are today. Yet, the Aramaic Bible says the word for “Law”, in Romans 3:21, is the Torah.

Acts 13:15 15 And after the reading of the Law and the Prophets, the rulers of the synagogue sent to them, saying, "Men and brethren, if you have any word of exhortation for the people, say on."

Before the canonization of the Old Testament books, they were not known as "Old Testament" or even Torah, etc. The Law and the Prophets was the term used to describe what we now know as many of the Old Testament writings. The Tanakh, which is the Jewish Bible that we know as the Old Testament, consist of the Torah, Nevi’im, and Ketuvim. The Torah and Nevi’im are the Law and the Prophets. The Law, or Torah, is the Covenant made with Abraham (this is aside from the works of the law given 430 years later on Sinai; and we will be covering this in an upcoming section); while the Prophets, or Nevi’im, is the prophecies of Israel and the Messiah to come.

Understanding this, we then see the righteousness of God, which is obedience besides the Ten Commandments, is a witness through the Covenant with Abraham and the prophecies of the Messiah. A witness is something that gives testimony or is evidence or proof of what is. This would mean that the Covenant with Abraham and prophecies of Christ are evidence or a testimony of the righteousness of God. So, moving the Ten Commandments aside, we know how to obtain the Righteousness of God by both Messiah Yeshua and by the Covenant made with Abraham. This is interesting to me, being the statement is written in, what is considered to be, the New Covenant writings.

In talking about Yeshua as our High Priest, and comparing with the high priest of the Old Covenant, the author of Hebrews says this:

Hebrews 8:5 5 Who serve unto the example and shadow of heavenly things, as Moses was admonished of God when he was about to make the tabernacle: for, See, said God, that you make all things according to the pattern shown to you in the mount.

Hebrews called the Old Covenant, tabernacle system, an example, and shadow. We also see it was designed after a pattern. Again, in context, Hebrews is comparing the high priest of the earthly tabernacle with Christ, our now High Priest. We read in Hebrews:

Hebrews 9:11 11 But Christ came as High Priest of the good things to come, with the greater and more perfect tabernacle not made with hands, that is, not of this creation.

Hebrews 9:24
For Christ is not entered into the holy place made with hands, which are the figures of the true; but into heaven itself, now to appear in the presence of God for us.

The pattern of the tabernacle, which was shown to Moses, was set off of the Heavenly Tabernacle. Hebrews then called this old system an example and shadow.

When we look at a shadow, is it the real thing or just an image of the real thing? When we look at an example, is the example the real thing or something to show us what the real thing is like? If the real thing is the Tabernacle in Heaven, and the one on earth is according to its pattern; and Hebrews called the earthly system and example and shadow, there are some large gold nuggets we can learn from this truth. A shadow is not different from the real thing. If we see our shadow, it will not look like a dog; it will be similar to our look. When we see an example of something, it is a useless example if it is vastly different from the real thing which it’s to be an example too.

Let’s take a look at another piece of context.

Matthew 5:17-18 17 "Do not think that I came to destroy the Law or the Prophets. I did not come to destroy but to fulfill. 18 For assuredly, I say to you, till heaven and earth pass away, one jot or one tittle will by no means pass from the law till all is fulfilled.

Religion teaches that the Old Testament, or Old Covenant, system is gone. When we understand that the Law is the Covenant made with Abraham, and the Prophets is the prophecies of the coming Messiah; now we look at the statement made by Y’shua and must ask the question, “What is suppose to be gone?”

It appears, within the context of Scripture, that brit chadasha means “Renewed Covenant”.

The word "chadasha" is so instrumental to "replacement theology" that James Stong's concordance chose to add vowel points and term two different reference numbers: #2318 - renew and #2319 - new. Theologians have long used this term to steer "the church" away from the Old Testament teachings. As we will learn, a man by the name of Marcion coined the terms "Old Testament" and "New Testament" suggesting, in effect, that the "old" was replaced by the "new".

It is a small debate on whether or not chadasha means “new” or “renewed”. I’ve read both sides of the “New” or “Renewed” argument and see the support for both sides. The ones who say it’s “new”, and who are honest with Scripture, give the reasonings, being the differences form of the “New” to the “Old”, which, when looked at in context, we see are merely a change from a shadow explaining the real. I’ll explain this later and we will look at Scripture to show these changes.

On whichever side you support, it does not change what Scripture says about the “New” / “Renewed” Covenant. The Old Covenant was an example (Heb 8:5) for the New and is a witness to the Righteousness of God within the “New”. Y’shua said He did not come to destroy the “Covenant with Abraham”, Law or Torah, but He came to fulfill it. The definition of “Fulfill” is “bring to completion or reality; achieve or realize”. Since He did not come to destroy, which would be to bring to completion, we then understand He came to bring to reality and the realization the shadow and example. In looking at these truths, we see the current Covenant has much of the same Covenant Terms and Conditions as the Old Covenant. The Bible teaches neither a full identity of the Old Covenant with the New nor a total disconnect between them either.

Part 5 - Establishment of the Two